Mediastinum > Gneuroblastoma

Ganglioneuroblastoma:

Clinical:

Ganglioneuroblastoma is a malignant neural tumor on the intermediate spectrum between ganglioneuromas and euroblastoma [2,3]. The majority of ganglioneuroblastomas act benign. The lesion contains mature ganglion cells and primative neuroblasts [2]. They are commonly attached to a nerve trunk [3].  Since the lesion may be invasive, the prognosis is slightly worse than for ganglioneuroma. In general, the younger the patient the better the prognosis. Most cases occur in patients 2 to 4 years of age [2] and about 75% present before age 10 years. The lesion occurs with equal frequency in boys and girls [2]. The prognosis and their response to therapy are significantly more favorable than that of neuroblastoma [2].

The most common location is the abdomen, but the posterior mediastinum is the next most common location [2].

X-ray:

The lesion appears very similar to a ganglioneuroma on CT, but calcification is seen more frequently. More malignant lesions can have an aggressive appearance.

REFERENCES:
(1) Chest 1997; Strollo DC, et al. Primary mediastinal tumors. Part II: Tumors of the middle and posterior mediastinum. 112: 1344-57

(2) Radiographics 2003; Rha SE, et al. Neurogenic tumors in the abdomen: tumor types and imaging characteristics. 23: 29-43

(3) AJR 2016; Pavlus JD, et al. Imaging of thoracic neurogenic tumors. 207: 552-561

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